Blockene: A Societal Scale Blockchain Over Mobile Devices


Blockene is a new blockchain architecture that reduces resource usage at member nodes by orders of magnitude, requiring only a smartphone to participate in block validation and consensus. Despite being lightweight, Blockene provides high throughput and scales to millions of participants. Blockene consumes negligible battery and data in smartphones, enabling millions of users to participate in the blockchain without incentives, to secure transactions with their collective honesty. Blockene achieves these properties with a novel split-trust design based on delegating storage and gossip to untrusted nodes.

Blockene provides a throughput of more than 1000 transactions per second, and can run with very low resource usage on smartphones, pointing to a new paradigm for building trustworthy, decentralized applications.


Sambhav Satija, Sudheesh Singanamalla, Muthian Sivathanu, Satya Lokam, Nishanth Chandran, Divya Gupta

Press and Publications

  1. Sivathanu, Muthian, Nishanth Chandran, Divya Gupta, Apurv Mehra, Satyanarayana V. Lokam, Sambhav Satija, and Sudheesh Singanamalla. "Lightweight Blockchain Based on Split-Trust." U.S. Patent Application 16/510,144, filed January 14, 2021. [Patent][Link]
  2. Sambhav Satija, Apurv Mehra, Sudheesh Singanamalla, Karan Grover, Muthian Sivathanu, Nishanth Chandran, Divya Gupta, and Satya Lokam. Blockene: A high-throughput blockchain over mobile devices. In Proceedings of the USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), 2020. [Paper][Talk][Slides]